Template:Cite web

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This template is used to cite online sources in Wikipedia articles. {{Cite news}} can also be used when citing a news source; for general information about citations in Wikipedia articles, see Wikipedia:Cite sources. A general discussion of the use of templates for adding citations to Wikipedia articles is available at Wikipedia:Citation templates.

Contents

Usage

Common forms with authors in any format

Citations within a page should use consistent formats. However, there is no consensus about which format is best. The following examples are for citations where one or more authors are listed in a single |author=authors parameter, using any format. Also shown below are two separate date formats that are commonly used in Wikipedia:

Day Month Year
{{cite web |url= |title= |author= |date= |work= |publisher= |accessdate=21 October 2019}}
Month Day, Year
{{cite web |url= |title= |author= |date= |work= |publisher= |accessdate=October 21, 2019}}

Common forms with last1, first1; last2, first2

The examples hereafter will suffice for up to two authors each with first and last names; for more, just create more parameters in a similar style:

Day Month Year
{{cite web |url= |title= |last1= |first1= |last2= |first2= |date= |work= |publisher= |accessdate=21 October 2019}}
Month Day, Year
{{cite web |url= |title= |last1= |first1= |last2= |first2= |date= |work= |publisher= |accessdate=October 21, 2019}}

All parameters

When copying all parameters in either the vertical or horizontal layouts, delete those which are not needed. None of the parameters should be capitalised, or the template will not work as intended. For example, use "url", "title", etc. - not "URL", "Title", etc.

All parameters, horizontal layout
{{cite web |url= |title= |first= |last= |author= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |month= |year= |work= |publisher= |location= |page= |pages= |at= |language= |trans_title= |format= |arxiv= |asin= |bibcode= |doi= |doibroken= |isbn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc = |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |id= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |deadurl= |accessdate= |quote= |ref= |separator= |postscript=}}
All parameters, vertical layout
All parameters,
vertical layout
Common parameters,
vertical layout,
multiple authors
Common parameters,
vertical layout,
single author
{{cite web
 | url =
 | title =
 | first =
 | last =
 | author =
 | authorlink =
 | coauthors =
 | date =
 | month =
 | year =
 | work =
 | publisher =
 | location =
 | page =
 | pages =
 | at =
 | language =
 | trans_title =
 | format =
 | arxiv =
 | asin =
 | bibcode =
 | doi =
 | doibroken =
 | isbn =
 | issn =
 | jfm =
 | jstor =
 | lccn =
 | mr =
 | oclc =
 | ol =
 | osti =
 | pmc =
 | pmid =
 | rfc =
 | ssrn =
 | zbl =
 | id =
 | archiveurl =
 | archivedate =
 | deadurl =
 | accessdate =
 | quote =
 | ref =
 | separator =
 | postscript =
}}
{{cite web
 | url = 
 | title = 
 | last1 = 
 | first1 = 
 | last2 = 
 | first2 = 
 | date = 
 | work = 
 | publisher = 
 | accessdate = 
}}
{{cite web
 | url = 
 | title = 
 | author = 
 | date = 
 | work = 
 | publisher = 
 | accessdate = 
}}

Examples

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |author=Doe, John |publisher=Open Publishing |date=30 April 2005 |work=Encyclopedia of Things |accessdate=6 July 2005 }}

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |author=Doe, John |date=30 April 2005 |work=Encyclopedia of Things |accessdate=6 July 2005 }}

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |author=Doe, John |date=30 April 2005 |accessdate=6 July 2005 }}

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |author=Doe, John |accessdate=6 July 2005 }}

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |accessdate=6 July 2005 }}

{{cite web |url=http://www.nfl.com/rulebook/digestofrules |title=Digest of Rules |publisher=National Football League |accessdate=6 July 2005 }}

Using format

{{cite web |url=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |publisher=International Narcotics Control Board |format=PDF |accessdate=6 July 2005 }}

Foreign language and translated title

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Honni soit qui mal y pense |author=Joliet, François |date=30 April 2005 |accessdate=6 July 2005 |language=French |trans_title=Shame on those who think evil }}

Using authorlink

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |author=Doe, John |authorlink=John Doe |publisher=Open Publishing |date=30 April 2005 |work=Encyclopedia of Things |accessdate=6 July 2005 }}

Using coauthors

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Our Favorite Things |first=John |last=Doe |coauthors=Smith, Peter; Smythe, Jim |publisher=Open Publishing |date=30 April 2005 |work=Encyclopedia of Things |accessdate=16 May 2006 }}

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Our Favorite Things |first=John |last=Doe |coauthors=Peter Smith; Jim Smythe |publisher=Open Publishing |date=30 April 2005 |work=Encyclopedia of Things |accessdate=16 May 2006 }}

No author

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |publisher=Open Publishing |date=30 April 2005 |work=Encyclopedia of Things |accessdate=16 May 2006 }}

No author, no publisher

This abbreviated format should only be used when the editor cannot determine the publisher and author.

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |date=30 April 2005 |work=Encyclopedia of Things |accessdate=6 July 2005}}

{{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |date=30 April 2005 |accessdate=6 July 2005}}

{{cite web |url=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |date=30 April 2005 |format=PDF |accessdate=6 July 2005 |language=Greek }}

Using "archiveurl" and "archivedate" (and optionally "deadurl") for webpages that have been archived

{{cite web |url=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |date=30 April 2005 |format=PDF |accessdate=6 July 2005 |archiveurl=http://www.archive.org/2005-09-11/www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |archivedate=11 September 2005 }}

{{cite web |url=http://joanjettbadrep.com/cgi-bin/fullStory.cgi?archive=currnews&story=20060405-01shore.htm |title=Interview with Maggie Downs |date=31 March 2006 |publisher=The Desert Sun |archiveurl=http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:JAxf4v-pQmgJ:joanjettbadrep.com/cgi-bin/fullStory.cgi%3Farchive%3Dcurrnews%26story%3D20060405-01shore.htm |archivedate=26 April 2006 |deadurl=no }}

{{Cite web |url=http://www.wunderground.com/global/stations/03772.html |title=London, United Kingdom Forecast : Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Heathrow Airport) |publisher=The Weather Underground, Inc. |accessdate=6 June 2008 |ref=harv | archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5yo0HaAk7 |archivedate=19 May 2011| deadurl=no }}

Using "quote"

{{cite web |url=http://www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/c.html |title=Daylight saving time: rationale and original idea |work=WebExhibits |year=2008 |accessdate=27 September 2009 |quote=... Lord Balfour came forward with a unique concern: 'Supposing some unfortunate lady was confined with twins ...' }}

Parameters

Syntax

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata; see Wikipedia:COinS.

  • Do not use parser or extension tags such as <nowiki> in fields—this exposes strip markers in the metadata; see Help:Strip markers for details.
  • Do not use templates such as {{smallcaps}} or other markup in fields—the HTML output will be rendered in the meta-data.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a period (.); this can be an issue when the last field in an abbreviation or initial with a period, as two periods then display. The only solution is to not include the last period in the value for the set of fields.

Description

Authors

  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use first1, last1 through first9, last9 for up to nine authors. By default, if nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and "et al." will show in place of the last author.
  • authorlink: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink.
  • OR: for multiple authors, use authorlink1 through authorlink9.
Aliases: last, last1, author, authors; last1, author1 through last9, author9
When using Shortened footnotes or Parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one parameter else the anchor will not match the inline link.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, such as "Illustrated by Smith" or "Trans. Smith".

Title

  • work: Title of website; can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both; formatted in italics.
    • trans_title: If the source cited is in a foreign language, an English translation of the title can be given here. The template will display this in square brackets after the work field and it will link to the url field, if used. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
  • title: Title of web page; formatted in quotes.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;
This parameter is required and will generate an error if not defined. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • language: The language the source is written in, if not English. Formatted in parentheses with "in" before the language name. Use the full language name; do not use icons or templates.

Date

  • date: Full date of source being referenced; in same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Use only the full date including month, day and year, else the anchor may be malformed.
  • OR: year: Year of source being referenced.
    • month: Name of the month of publication. If you also have the day, use date instead; do not wikilink.
    • origyear: Original publication year; displayed after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics; example: |origyear=First published 1859 or |origyear=Composed 1904.

Publisher

  • publisher: Name of publisher; corporate designations such as "Ltd" or "Inc" are not usually included; may be wikilinked if relevant.
    • location: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked.
    • publication-date: Date of publication; in same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink.

Series

  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.

In-source locations

  • page: Page in the source that supports the content; preceded with ​p.​ unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: Pages in the source that supports the content; separate page ranges with an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source; preceded with ​pp.​ unless |nopp=y.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the ​p.​ or ​pp.​ notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient; overridden by |page= or |pages=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.

URL

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Do not link to any commercial booksellers such as Amazon.com; see WP:BOOKLINKS.
    • format: Format of the work referred to by url; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; HTML is implied and should not be specified; displayed in parentheses after title.
    • accessdate: Full date when URL was accessed; use the same format as other dates in in the article; do not wikilink; requires url.
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite and the Internet Archive; requires archivedate.
    • archivedate: Date when the item was archived; use the same format as other dates in in the article; do not wikilink; requires archiveurl.
    • deadurl: To change the order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end, set |deadurl=no.
    • template doc demo: The archive parameters have error checking to ensure that all the required parameters are included, else {{citation error}} is invoked. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme: http:// and https://will be supported by all browsers; irc://, ircs://, ftp://, news://, mailto: and gopher:// will require a plugin or an external application. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
URLs containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace these characters:
sp " , '  ; < >  ? [ ]
 %20  %22  %2c  %3a  %3b  %3c  %3e  %3f  %5b  %5d

Anchor

Identifiers

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.

Quote

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source; enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.

Editors

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-first, editor1-last through editor1-first, editor4-last for up to four editors.
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-link through editor4-link.
Format:
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."; more than three editors will be followed by "et al., eds.".

Laysummary

  • laysummary: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary".
    • laysource: Name of the source of the laysummary; formatted in italics and preceded by an endash.
    • laydate: Date of the summary; enclosed in parentheses.

Display options

  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with a strike-through dash (—) author-mask em in length. If |author-mask=1 then the dash will be one em in length and so on. Set author-mask to a text value to display a word instead:– for example, 'with'. You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use in bibliographies for some styles where multiple works by a single author are listed. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control as to the order that references will display.
  • author-name-separator: Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • author-separator: Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • display-authors: By default, the number of authors displayed is limited to 8; if 9 are provided, the ninth is displayed as "et al." This parameter allows display of fewer authors before the "et al."; example: |display-authors=2; if there are 8 or fewer authors, then "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-authors=9.
  • lastauthoramp: When set to any value, changes the separator to use between the last two names in lists of authors to an ampersand (&); defaults to a semicolon and space (; ), else |author-separator= if set.
  • postscript: The closing punctuation for the citation; defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no terminating punctuation will be used. Ignored if |quote= is specified.
  • separator: The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.

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